World's Greatest Civilizations and Creation Myths

"Whence this creation has arisen – perhaps it formed itself, or perhaps it did not –
the one who looks down on it, in the highest heaven, only he knows – or perhaps he knows not."

Name of Civilization Period Duration Current location Gods worshipped
Olmec Civilization 1,200 B.C. to 400 B.C. 800 years Gulf of Mexico (now the states of Veracruz and Tabasco), Nicaragua The names of the gods of the Olmec are not known other than that they often represented phenomena such as rain, the earth and especially maize. For this reason, identifiable gods from Olmec art have been given numbers instead of names (e.g. God VI). Believed that powerful rulers could transform themselves at will into such fearsome creatures.
The Incan Civilization 1438 A.D – 1532 A.D 94 years Ecuador, Peru and Chile Inti , the sun, was the supreme god and the most important deity Mama Quilla, the moon, was the sun’s wife, sister and mother of the Incas, she was represented by the Coya.
The Aztecs Civilization 1345 A.D – 1521 A.D 176 years Mexico Quetzalcoatl was the god of civilization. He was a very important god, but not as important as his brother, Tezcatlipoca, who was one of the two Aztec gods of war. The other war god was named Huitzilopochtli. The Aztecs believed in an afterlife.
The Roman Civilization 550 BC – 465 B.C 85 years Rome The three most important gods were Jupiter (protector of the state), Juno (protector of women) and Minerva (goddess of craft and wisdom). Other major gods included Mars (god of war), Mercury (god of trade and messenger of the gods) and Bacchus (god of grapes and wine production)
The Persian Civilization 550 BC – 465 B.C 85 years Modern Day Iran Zoroaster was the prophet who brought this religion to Persia. Zoroastrianism. The Persians only worshipped two gods, one good god, who symbolizes light, was Ahura Mazda; and the evil god, symbolizes darkness and death, was Ahriman.
Ancient Greek Civilization 2700 BC – 1500 BC 1200 years Greece Zeus, Poseidon, Hera, Demeter, Athena, Ares, Aphrodite, Apollo, Artemis, Hephaestus, Hermes, and either Hestia or Dionysus
Chinese Civilization 1600 BCE - 1046 BCE 554 years China Yu-huang is a sky god. Fei Lian and Feng Po Po are wind gods. Lei-Kung and Lei-zi are the gods of thunder and lightning. Heng O is the moon goddess. Gong gong is the god of disastrous floods. Han is the god of the Han river. Hou Ji is the god of millet, an important food in northern China.
Mayan Civilization 2600 BC-900 A.D 3500 years Yucatan, Quintana Roo, Campeche, Tabasco, and Chiapas in Mexico and southward through Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador and Honduras Sun God, Kinih Ahous, or Maize God, Yum Kaax. The Mayan religion was Polytheist, and they worshiped more than 165 Gods. The Gods were human-like. The Gods were born, grew up and died. Gods would do other human like activity that was deemed acceptable behavior.
Ancient Egyptian Civilization 3100 BC - 2686 BC 414 years Egypt Sun god Ra, the creator god Amun, and the mother goddess Isis. AMUN-Ra “The Hidden One”, MUT “The Mother Goddess”, OSIRIS “The King of Living”, ANUBIS “The Divine Embalmer”, RA “The God of Sun & Radiance”, HORUS “God of Vengeance”, THOTH “God of Knowledge and Wisdom”, HATHOR “Goddess of Motherhood”, SEKHMET “Goddess of War and Healing”, GEB “God of Earth”
Indus Valley Civilization 2600 BC -1900 BC 700 years Northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India Earliest roots of mordern Hinduism. Mother Goddess symbolised fertility.
Mesopotamian Civilization 3500 BC - 500 BC 3000 years Iran, Syria, and Turkey Sumerian Gods - Anu - god of the heavens and king of the gods. Enki - shaper of the world as well as god of wisdom, intellect, and magic. Utu - god of the sun as well as justice and the law Inanna - goddess of love and war. Nanna - also called Sin. He was god of the moon.